Harper’s Standardized Study Bible Methodology

Interlinear Conventions

  • Each morphological unit is enclosed in square brackets [ ].
  • Nouns and demonstrative pronouns are capitalized.
  • Adjectives, adverbs, verbs, prepositions, and particles are lower case.
  • Equational verbs that are assumed by a non-verbal sentence structure and prepositions denoted by the case ending of a noun or adjective are enclosed in curly brackets { }.
  • The Hebrew article is included within the square brackets of the noun or adjective it is joined to. The Greek article, if not just a silent grammatical indicator, is translated according to its usage as an article, personal pronoun, relative pronoun, etc.

Translation Standards

  • Singular and plural nouns are translated as they stand in the original text.
  • Singular and plural personal pronouns are translated as they stand in the original text.
  • Adjectives and adverbs are translated as modifiers of the word they modify in the original text.
  • Particles are translated variously, but standardized within the various uses they serve.
  • The translation of finite verbs is standardized according to the various forms in which they occur. Participles are translated as adjectives, relative phrases, and temporal phrases, depending on context. Infinitives are also translated in a standard way, with each usage determined by context.
  • Archaic English terms that are still being used by all other translators but have long since lost the meaning they had when the King James Version was translated (e.g. words like covenant, righteousness, and justification) are updated by words and phrases that accurately reflect the meaning of the words in the original text.